- The Request for Proposal is called to identify a suitable Consultant to assist COMESA to conduct a mapping study on Climate Change-induced Conflicts in the COMESA Region.
- The mapping study once completed will be shared with COMESA stakeholders including Government agencies, the COMESA Committee of Elders, civil society organizations, and NGOs amongst others. Lastly, the mapping study will identify the societal groups mostly affected by climate change impacts and recommend various strategic interventions that can be applied by Governments and non-state actors in addressing and resolving conflicts at various levels (local, national/cross-border) that emerge as a result of climate change factors mainly droughts and floods.
- The mapping study will further complement the efforts that COMESA has put in place to develop the COMESA Resource Pack on Mediation Strategy particularly the Guidelines on Natural Resource-based conflicts. The mapping exercise will also identify climate change sensitive indicators that will be used by COMWARN to track climate change-related conflicts and their potential impact on peace and security.
Mapping of Climate Change-Induced Conflicts in the COMESA Region
- Climate change issues particularly droughts and floods continue to emerge as key sources and drivers of conflict at the communal, national and cross-border/regional levels in the COMESA region. With regard to drought, the eastern and southern Africa regions have in the past few years witnessed recurrent cycles of droughts which resulted in reduced rainfall, crop failures, and the limited access to water and pasture resources for pastoralist communities. The long spells of drought in 2015-2016 and from mid-2017 to late 2019 were most dire for the pastoralist communities as they culminated in reduced access to water and pasture resources. This situation led to increased competition over water, land, and pasture and communal violence incidents in the form of livestock raiding and theft that caused killings and injuries, property damages, and displacement.
- On the other hand, the floods that occurred in eastern Africa in late 2019 to early 2020 took a heavy toll in the arid and semi-arid areas of Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda, and Somalia which are inhabited by pastoralist communities. Prolonged rains forced pastoralist communities to migrate from their communal lands in search of land and pasture to other areas occupied by neighboring communities. In addition, displacement occurred as pasturelands were flooded and animal diseases set in depleting large herds which communities depend on for their livelihoods.
- It is due to the above-mentioned climate change-induced threats to peace and security emanating from recurrent droughts and floods, and in line with Article 3 of the COMESA Treaty, which specifies the aims and objectives of the Common Market, specifically Article 3(d), “to cooperate in the promotion of peace, security and stability among Member States in order to enhance economic development in the region” that informs COMESA’s decision to commission this mapping study. In that regard, COMESA Ministers of Foreign Affairs were charged to deliberate on modalities related to matters of Peace and Security at least once in a year. The Ministers have mostly deliberated on the traditional issues of peace and security until their 14th Meeting which was held in Ethiopia in March 2015 when the Ministers included in their agenda deliberation on climate change and its impact on the peace and security dynamics. This was done following unprecedented flooding in the Southern African Region during that period. This has become a regular agenda item for the Ministers Meetings.
- With the increase of climate change related manifestations globally, COMESA has identified the need to map the effects of climate change in the region and empirically identify the impact of climate change on peace and security. COMESA is therefore recruiting a short-term consultant to conduct the mapping study and clearly identify the linkage with peace and security as well as identify possible response options for COMESA. The outputs of the study will also feed into the COMESA COMWARN model as it seeks to incorporate dynamic data into the model. The study and the model will be validated with COMESA’s stakeholders at the local, national, and cross-border/regional levels in order to enhance the understanding of the nature and effects of climate change-induced conflicts in the region to adopt response options for the region. The study will therefore outline the various strategies that have been applied at the various levels in addressing and mitigating the adverse effects of climate-induced conflicts in order to enhance the skills and knowledge of peacebuilding practitioners when conducting peaceful interventions. The study will complement the utilization of the developed mediation resource pack that COMESA has developed towards addressing and resolving natural resource based conflicts.
The broad objective of the consultancy is to conduct a mapping study on climate change-induced conflicts in the COMESA Region and the linkage to peace and security as well as propose response options.
- METHODOLOGY TO BE USED
The assignment will be conducted through an in-depth desk research on the extent to which climate change-induced conflicts have manifested themselves and influenced various conflicts in the COMESA Region especially at the regional/cross-border, national, and local levels. The Consultant may also conduct field research visits to selected areas that continue to experience climate changed-induced conflicts for interviews and Focussed Group Discussions with various relevant entities including civil society, local community leaders and representatives, Government agencies, and development agencies amongst others. Lastly, the study should highlight best practices that peacebuilding entities including government agencies, civil society, development agencies, and local authorities can apply in addressing, mitigating and resolving climate change-induced conflicts in the COMESA region.
- A first draft report of the Mapping of Climate Change-Induced Conflicts in the COMESA Region. This should include the nature and manifestation of climate change in the region; the linkage with peace and security and recommendations on the possible response options by the respective stakeholders.
- The report will also include possible climate change indicators that can be incorporated into the dynamic aspects of the COMESA Early Warning (COMWARN) model.
- Presentation to a stakeholder’s workshop (subject to availability of funds, otherwise comments will be provided by the Secretariat);
- Finalised Mapping study of Climate Change-Induced Conflicts in the COMESA Region.
- Eligibility of Consultants
This consultancy is open to reputable international and Local Consultants based in their respective COMESA member States that have sufficient experience in recruitment and selection to undertake this assignment.
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Post expires at 3:00pm on Tuesday September 15th, 2020